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Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon that occurs mostly in adults who have received antibiotics. Common symptoms of this condition include watery diarrhea; abdominal cramps; high fever; urgency for bowel movement; nausea; dehydration; and blood, pus or mucous in the stools. Antibiotic use, age over 65 years, a weakened immune system, inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, intestinal surgery and cancer chemotherapy, are risk factors for this condition.

The Ayurvedic treatment of pseudomembranous colitis is aimed at controlling the diarrhea, reducing inflammation in the intestines and preventing complications like perforation. Ayurvedic medicines like Kutaj-Ghan-Vati, Kutaj-Parpati, Praval-Panchamrut, Panchamrut-Parpati, Kutajarishta, Bilva-avaleha and Laghu-Sutshekhar-Ras are used to treat the diarrhea. Herbal medicines which can be used for this purpose include Vishwa (Zinziber officinalis), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Bilva (Aegle marmelos), Dadim (Pomegranate), Maiphal (Quercus infectoria), Jaiphal (Myristica fragrans), Lavang (Eugenia caryophyllata), Haridra (Curcuma longa) and Daruharidra (Berberis aristata).

Patients who do not respond to the above mentioned medicines can be given additional medicines like Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Usheer (Vetiveria zizanioidis), Rakta-Chandan (Pterocarpus santalinus), Pittapapda (Fumaria vaillantii), Shankh-Bhasma and Praval-Bhasma. Medicines like Kamdudha-Ras and Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra) can be used to prevent perforation in the intestine. Medicines like Ras-Parpati, Kutaj-Parpati and Panchamrut-Parpati are effective both for treating the diarrhea as well as helping the normal bacteria to grow again in the intestines.

Patients affected with pseudomembranous colitis have a tendency to relapse several times. Medicines like Panchamrut-Parpati and Suvarna-Parpati can be given to prevent this. Medicines like Bilva-avaleha and Kutajarishta can also be given for this purpose on a long term basis. Pomegranate juice, curd and buttermilk are recommended for this condition. It is important to treat dehydration in order to prevent complications like circulatory collapse, toxic megacolon and kidney failure.

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Aloe Vera heals burns, scalds, relieves sunburn, treats minor wounds. As a healing plant, aloe is something of a celebrity. Across America, the spiky plant sits on untold numbers of kitchen windowsills, just waiting. Waiting for what? A spattered bit of grease, a careless moment at the oven, and the inner gel of the aloe leaves gets called into service as a burn salve. Even scientists take advantage of this simple home remedy.

Most household burns and scalds, and many other minor mishaps, occur in the kitchen. With an aloe plant close by, it's easy to snip off one the thick, fleshy leaves, slit it open and squeeze the clear gel onto the injury. "Aloe gel dries into a natural bandage, It also promotes healing and helps keep burns from becoming infected." Aloe has a long history as a healer. Around 1500 BC, the ancient Egyptians began using aloe as a powerful laxative and a treatment for skin problems. When Alexander the Great conquered Egypt, he learned that an island off Somalia teemed with aloes. He immediately seized it to guarantee a supply of the wound treatment for his troops, while keeping the herb from his enemies. Arab traders carried aloe from Spain to Asia around the sixth century. Traditional Indian Ayurvedic doctors and Chinese physicians quickly adopted it as a laxative and skin treatment. American pioneers used aloe gel to treat wounds, burns, hemorrhoids and rashes.

Scientific validation of aloe's wound-healing power dates from the 1930s, when radiologists noticed that aloe gel scooped straight from the cut leaves of the plant hastened the healing of x-ray burns. Since then, many studies have confirmed the herb's ability to promote healing of cuts, frostbite and first- and second-degree burns.

"Aloe contains allantoin, a substance that speeds wound healing," says Alan R. Gaby, M.D., a Baltimore physician who practices nutritional and natural medicine and is president of the American Holistic Medical Association.

One chemical in this herb - aloe-emodin - "has anti-tumor activity," according to James A. Duke, Ph.D., a botanist retired from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and author of The CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Aloe is not currently used to treat cancer, but one day it might be. And some derivatives of aloe are also being studies for both anti-AIDS and anti-cancer potential.

How To Use Aloe Vera

Before applying aloe to burns of cuts, wash thoroughly with soap and water. For minor burns, scalds, sunburns or cuts, select a lower (older) leaf, cut off several inches and slice it lengthwise. Scoop out the gel, apply it liberally to the affected area and allow it to dry. (The injured aloe leaf quickly closes its own wound. Periodic leaf-snipping does not harm the plant.)

Aloe gel is safe for external use by anyone who does not develop an allergic reaction. If your skin shows signs of redness or irritation after using aloe, discontinue use.

Even if you have a brown thumb, you can grow aloes. They need little water and no care other than good drainage and a temperature above 40 degrees F. They prefer sun but tolerate shade, and they don't mind poor soil. Aloes produce offshoots, which may be removed and replanted when they are a few inches tall. Simply uproot or un pot the plant, work the soil gently to separate the offshoot and return the parent plant to its bed or pot.

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Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is a plant originally found in Africa. It has thick cactus-like green long leaves which contain a gel and also a yellow residue known as latex. It is this gel that contains all the medicinal values of Aloe. All the medicinal features of it are found in Aloe Mucilaginous Polysaccharides (AMP). Aloe mucilaginous polysaccharides are long chains of sugar molecules consisting of separate mannose and glucose sugar molecules linked together.

With its incredible medicinal properties Aloe vera is used in the treatment of grave diseases like ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) all ailments caused due to the inflammation of the digestive tract between intestine and rectum. Aloe is considered to be a natural remedy for these conditions because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Let us now take a look at how exactly aloe vera heals these conditions.

Every cell, tissue and organ of your body is benefited by AMP (Aloe Mucilaginous Polysaccharide) molecules in Aloe-Vera. Primarily and most importantly, this medicine functions as a highly potent anti-inflammatory drug. It directly tackling the inflammation in the digestive tract, aloe vera successfully helps in removing diarrhea and constipation. Similarly, using its property as an intercellular antioxidant Aloe-Vera detoxifies your body rather naturally by repairing and rebuilding the protective mucosa membrane along the bowel walls and fixing damaged tissue from mouth to rectum.

Moreover it helps your body in digestion, better absorption of digested food and even better assimilation of absorbed food into your body. Also it helps restore and balance the optimum functioning of your immune system. Complete with antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic properties, Aloe mucilaginous polysaccharides provide a wide range of benefits to your body while helping maintain good health without any serious side effects.

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Colitis

What is colitis?

Colitis is inflammation of the colon, or large intestine. Colitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in dogs. It does occur in cats, although less often.

What are the symptoms of colitis?

Animals with colitis will have diarrhea, often with mucus or fresh blood in the stool. When the colon becomes inflamed, the pet feels an urgency to have a bowel movement. So, a dog or cat with colitis will often have inappropriate accidents in the house and even after the colon is empty, may continue to strain as if trying to go. This nonproductive straining can be confusing to an owner who often misinterprets this symptom as constipation.

What causes colitis?

There are various causes including parasites, bacterial infections, and dietary problems. The most common cause of colitis is stress. This stress is often associated with activities that are scary to the pet like boarding, guests in the house, and thunderstorms.

How is colitis treated?

If the specific cause can be determined, therapy is directed at the source. For instance, if an infection is found, antibiotics are prescribed. Reducing the inflammation in the colon is also important. High fiber diets are also very helpful in the treatment and in the prevention of colitis.

What should an owner do if they suspect their dog has colitis?

Seek veterinary care as soon as possible. Avoid events that you know may be stressful for your dog. Ask your veterinarian for a higher fiber diet, specially if your dog seems prone to colitis.

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Flagyl is an effective and valued defense against bacterial infection. The generic name for Flagyl is metronidazole.

The Flagyl antibiotic is used to effectively kill anaerobic (low oxygen) bacteria and certain parasites in humans.

Areas of the body which may harbor anaerobic bacteria include the liver, abdomen, and pelvis. Infections within these regions that are commonly treated with the antibiotic Flagyl are:

- Bacterial peritonitis (of the abdomen)

- Abscesses of the liver

- Abscesses of the ovaries and fallopian tubes

- Bacterial infections of the brain

In addition, Flagyl may be used to treat bacterial infections of the stomach, skin, joints, and respiratory tract infections.

Flagyl may also be chosen in the treatment of parasitic infections such as Giardia lambia and ameba, both of which may cause abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. Patients taking Flagyl to treat a Giardia infection must follow up with their health care professional to ensure complete eradication of the parasite.

Infections not included in Flagyl labeling, but which Flaygl may be chosen to treat include:

- Colitis associated with antibiotic use

- Balantidiasis

- Dental infections

- Gastritis or ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori

- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBS)

Flagyl may be prescribed to treat other infections at the discretion of a medical doctor.

Flagyl is generally safe for use by all ages, including premature infants, newborn infants, children, teens, and adults. Flagyl may however cause adverse effects in unborn babies and so it is not used during the first trimester of pregnancy. Likewise, Flagyl is not recommended for breast feeding mothers as adverse effects can occur in nursing infants.

Flagyl may be used prior to, during, and following certain medical procedures to treat or prevent bacterial infection. Patients may be prescribed antibiotic Flagyl before and during bowel surgery. Flagyl may also be prescribed to male and female carriers of trichominiasis even if symptoms of infection are not present in order to eradicate the invader and prevent infection.

Flagyl is subject to allergic reaction and side-effects, although side-effects with Flagyl are generally rare and the drug is usually well tolerated. Side effects may include numbness, tingling, pain, swelling, tenderness, dizziness, irritation, and unpleasant taste in the mouth; very rarely, seizures may result from Flagyl use. Any unpleasant or serious side-effects should be reported to your doctor so that appropriate action can be taken.

Flagyl can be affected by and can affect other medical conditions, and may interact with other medications, so it is important to share your complete medical history with your doctor.

Flagyl is an antibiotic that works best when constant levels of the drug are maintained in the bloodstream, so proper dosing schedules of Flagyl should be maintained to the best of your ability.

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The inflammatory bowel disease is a grouping of chronic gastrointestinal disorders that cause inflammation and ulceration on the digestive tract or bowels and can lead to many medical symptoms and signs, including abdominal pain, tiredness, fever, watery stools, blood in the stool, loss of appetite, and weight loss. The ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two most commonly occurring inflammatory bowel diseases. Although most of the symptoms of both these abdominal diseases are more or less same, these two diseases are two different medical conditions and require different treatment modalities. A brief explanation of the symptoms and other characteristics can be greatly helpful to understand the differences between these two inflammatory bowel diseases.

The Crohn's disease is a persistent inflammatory condition of the digestive tract and can affect anyplace from the mouth to the anus. Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, mostly causes inflammation in the innermost lining of the colon and the rectum. In some individuals it affects the ileum, the last part of the intestine.

Ulcerative colitis normally causes pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Patients with Crohn's disease usually feel pain in their right lower abdominal quadrant. It typically creates patches of inflammation in an intermittent pattern in one or more organs of the alimentary canal, while colitis produces continuous inflammation in the colon and rectum.

A gastroenterologist performs a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy to identify whether the patient suffers from these bowel diseases. If the colon shows a thickened, cobblestone appearance, it can be concluded that the patient is having Crohn's disease. Likewise, granulomas or lesions of inflamed cells are commonly found in Crohn's while they are absent in ulcerative colitis.

In the patients with ulcerative colitis, ulcers occur only on the inner lining of the large intestine. The Crohn's disease ulcerations are deep and can penetrate into all layers of intestinal walls. Similarly, this disease can sometimes lead to many other complications, such as fissures, traumas, and fistulas.

Another interesting difference between these two diseases is that when smoking is a risk factor for the Crohn's disease and can lead to relapse of this disease, ulcerative colitis is regarded as no-smoker's disease as in some people smoking can be protective against it.

Sometimes, the inflammatory bowel disease is confused with another common gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome or IBS. The irritable bowel syndrome also has symptoms like abdominal bloating, pain, intestinal discomfort, diarrhea, and weight loss. However, this medical condition is not as serious as inflammatory bowel disease, but it can affect the quality of life of a patient.

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Abdominal cramps and diarrhea are symptoms that may come with various diseases. These diseases include gastritis, food poisoning, irritable bowel syndrome, parasitic infections, diverticulitis, and traveler's diarrhea. Diarrhea is a disease where a person suffers from abnormal bowel movements. A bowel movement would be considered abnormal if it occurs more than thrice in a day. Abdominal cramps are caused by spasms or muscle contractions.

It can be said that abdominal cramps and diarrhea tells us about the irritation that our colon or the digestive system faces for various reasons. It is often said that it is through diarrhea that our body frees itself from various unwanted substances. Bacterial infections can also trigger diarrhea.

In short, what we eat has lot to do with abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Eating of unhygienic or under prepared food items often causes food poisoning, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastritis. People who have allergies from various foodstuffs can also suffer from diarrhea.

Apart from the above mentioned cases, abdominal cramps are seen in women who are undergoing their menopause. This is a period of their life cycle when they undergo some biological changes and that may cause the cramps on the muscles of the abdomen. Women who are having their period also suffer this kind of cramps.

Abdominal cramps can also signify infections of the colon. This is the reason that such cramps are one of the symptoms of ulcerative colitis. However, a patient of this disease also suffers from blood diarrhea.

Quite often a person suffering from diarrhea and abdominal cramp can also have feelings of nausea. There are antibiotics that can control these cramps and diarrhea. It is also very important that one should keep his body hydrated during diarrhea.

It is always better to be safe than sorry. Lead a hygienic and healthy life style and you will not suffer from abdominal cramps and diarrhea too often.

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The Thyroid-Adrenal-Pancreas Axis

In addition to gastrointestinal and blood sugar disorders, adrenal gland dysfunction is the most commonly seen imbalance in today's society. Adrenal gland imbalances are also one of the major factors that cause thyroid hormone imbalance. Stress from work, relationships, electronics, poor diet choices such as consumption of refined carbohydrates and trans fats, infections, and environmental toxins all contribute to adrenal disorders.

The Adrenal Glands

The adrenal glands are about the size of a walnut and lie on top of the kidneys. The outer adrenal cortex comprises eighty percent of the gland and produces many hormones including cortisol and DHEA from cholesterol. Ninety percent of the cholesterol in the body is made by the liver and only ten percent comes from the diet. Cholesterol converts into the hormone pregnenolone in the adrenal cortex which then converts to cortisol, the stress hormone, or DHEA, the sex hormone source, immune enhancer and anabolic. Cortisol is our "fight or flight" stress hormone. Cortisol slows down digestion, suppresses immune function and raises blood sugar as a survival mechanism when we are under stress. The problem arises when this becomes chronic and over time, elevated cortisol will tear down your body. Cortisol is secreted on a circadian rhythm with highest production in the morning that slowly tapers off as the day progresses. Sleep is when our bodies repair and rejuvenate but high cortisol during sleep will prevent this from happening.

Hormones Secreted by the Adrenal Glands

DHEA
DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is a precursor to estrogens, progesterone and testosterone. DHEA is extremely important for immune system function and anabolic (building up) processes in the body. DHEA levels begin to decline after age thirty-five but cortisol can remain elevated during continuing periods of stress. Low DHEA levels are also found in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, cancer, fibromyalgia, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's, ulcerative colitis and of course, thyroid disorders.

Healthy adrenal glands are required for the conversion of inactive T4 into active T3.
When the adrenals have reached a state of fatigue, they are no longer producing sufficient cortisol or DHEA. This leaves individuals more susceptible to chronic diseases from an inability to compensate for the stresses they encounter on a daily basis. It is very important to treat the adrenal glands before commencing treatment of the thyroid. Increasing thyroid hormone production while the adrenals are in fatigue can overwhelm the adrenals and lead to further exhaustion. I have found that once the adrenal glands are healthy and the other related system/factors associated with thyroid imbalance are optimized, there is no need to treat the thyroid directly.

The inner medulla produces adrenalin and noradrenalin also known as norepinephrine and epinephrine. The cortex is under the control of hormones produced in the brain and the medulla is under the control of the nervous system.

Healthy adrenal glands are vital for women who are peri- and post-menopausal. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing the majority of sex hormones in a menopausal woman once the ovaries stop functioning. If the adrenal glands are fatigued and not ready for menopause, there will be an exaggeration of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, weight gain, sleep problems, bone loss, mood swings, depression, anxiety, loss of sex drive and vaginal dryness. Healthy adrenals ensure an easy transition into menopause and beyond. A vast majority of the women I see in practice approach menopause with adrenal fatigue leading to severe menopausal symptoms and hormone dysfunction.

Aldosterone
Aldosterone is produced by the cortex and causes sodium absorption and potassium excretion. Low salt diets and high water intake put a major stress on the adrenal glands to retain as much salt as possible as the blood becomes more diluted from the extra water intake. One of the easiest ways to maintain healthy adrenals is to consume a half- teaspoon of unrefined celtic sea salt every morning with a few glasses of water. It's important to consume half of your bodyweight in ounces of water every day but it must be balanced with salt to remove stress from the adrenal glands.

Cortisol
Cortisol is also produced by the cortex which increases blood sugar when it is low or if the body is under stress. Cortisol will cause glucose production in the liver or it will strip muscle tissue of protein to make glucose. Excess cortisol over long periods of time can increase the risk of diabetes due to prolonged blood sugar elevations.

Adrenaline
Adrenaline produced by the adrenal medulla will also raise blood sugar if there is stress on the body. Adrenaline will also increase fat circulation so that it can be burned as energy. This is not a good scenario for someone who is sitting at a desk and under major stress. Large amounts of fat and sugar floating in the bloodstream should be utilized to run from a saber-toothed tiger which is our built-in survival mechanism. If there is no activity, the excess sugar will be converted into fat and stored mainly around the mid-section, hips and thighs.

The adrenal cortex communicates with the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in the brain. The hypothalamus reads the amount of circulating hormones and tells the pituitary to make hormones that directly tell the cortex to make hormones. This is called the HPA axis or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

All hormones are secreted on a circadian rhythm over a 24-hour period. Cortisol is especially representative of this rhythm as cortisol production is the highest in the early morning and then slowly tapers off as the day progresses. Cortisol levels are lowest at night so that the body can repair itself to the best of its ability. You lose two-thirds of your stored sugar while sleeping and cortisol production ensures balanced blood sugar during the night. If the adrenals are fatigued, you may have trouble staying asleep as the body will make adrenaline to raise blood sugar due to inadequate cortisol production which is enough to wake you up. If your adrenals are in overdrive with too much cortisol production, then you probably have trouble falling asleep. If you are a slow starter in the morning, your adrenals are probably fatigued and can't make adequate cortisol to raise blood sugar and get you going in the morning.

The adrenals will go through phases of adaptation to stress beginning with elevated cortisol due to the initial stress. In the second stage, the adrenals will begin to use sex hormone precursors to make cortisol and DHEA will drop. The final stage is adrenal exhaustion/fatigue when the adrenals can no longer produce cortisol and DHEA. If you have adrenal gland dysfunction you may have the following symptoms:

Can't fall asleep
Can't stay asleep
Fatigue
Salt or sugar cravings
Allergies
Slow to start in the morning
Headaches
Weakened immune system
Ulcers
Need to eat to relieve fatigue
Irritable before meals
Shaky or lightheaded if meals are missed
Blurred vision
Crave caffeine or cigarettes
Feeling full or bloated
Dizziness
Asthma
Varicose veins
Hemorrhoids

Remember that the hormone aldosterone made in the adrenal cortex regulates blood volume through sodium retention and potassium excretion. If you have the following symptoms you have low aldosterone levels indicating adrenal gland dysfunction:

Craving salt
Fluid retention in the arms and legs
Pupils do not stay constricted when exposed to light
Rough or sandpaper tongue
Excessive urination - up to 15-20 times/day
Excessive sweating even without activity

Your natural physician will order a salivary hormone profile to measure cortisol production at four different times throughout the day. This allows your physician to observe adrenal gland dysfunction during all parts of the day and will dictate the type of treatment you will receive. Symptoms cannot adequately diagnose if the adrenals are in fatigue or if they are hyperfunctioning. This is why testing is so vital to properly assess adrenal gland function. In addition, it gives a baseline to compare to follow-up testing so treatment can be adjusted accordingly.

Blood sugar is intricately related to adrenal gland function and vice versa. Chronically elevated cortisol levels from adrenal stress will cause insulin receptor insensitivity. This basically means that when insulin binds to cell receptors to allow glucose (blood sugar) entry into the cell, the receptors may not respond which leaves sugar floating in the blood stream. Remember that excess sugar will be converted into fat and stored mainly around the abdomen, hips and thighs. This also puts extra stress on the pancreas to make more insulin to deal with the excess blood sugar which increases the risk of diabetes. As discussed earlier, cortisol is very important for blood sugar stability.

Hypoglycemia is a condition in which there is inadequate cortisol to raise blood sugar into the normal range. We usually see adrenal fatigue and hypoglycemia together. Hypoglycemics develop symptoms of low blood sugar and need to eat something to normalize blood sugar levels. They may feel shaky, irritable, light-headed, fatigued or may crave sugar because their adrenal glands cannot raise blood sugar into the normal range. Once hypoglycemics rejuvenate their adrenal glands, the symptoms will subside. It's important for hypoglycemics to eat frequently throughout the day and not skip meals. Each meal should be a combination of protein, carbohydrates and fats as a low-carb meal or too many carbs will further throw off blood sugar levels.

You may ask which comes first - adrenal dysfunction or blood sugar dysfunction? It doesn't matter because when one starts to become imbalanced so goes the other. This is also important to understand in treatment because both aspects should be addressed at the same time for optimal results.

So how does all this relate to optimal thyroid function? In the chapter on thyroid hormone physiology, we discussed the enzyme that converts inactive T4 (thyroxine) into active T3 (triiodothyronine). Remember that 93 percent of the hormone produced by the thyroid is inactive T4 until it is activated mainly in the liver by an enzyme. Cortisol directly inhibits this enzyme (5'-deiodinase) which converts inactive T4 into active T3. This in part can lead to low T3 levels. In addition, elevated cortisol will cause thyroid hormone receptor insensitivity meaning that even if T3 levels are adequate, they may not be able to bind normally to receptor sites. Cortisol will also increase the production of reverse T3 which is inactive. Cortisol can also lower the levels of protein that binds to thyroid hormone so it can circulate in a stable structure. Iodine, as you know from a previous chapter, is extremely vital to thyroid health but high levels of cortisol will increase the excretion of iodide from the kidney. And finally, elevated cortisol will inhibit TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) production by disrupting hypothalamic-pituitary feedback leading to suboptimal TSH production in the range of 1.0-1.5. Has your physician adequately assessed your adrenals before treatment? It is very irresponsible for any physician to treat thyroid hormone dysfunction without thoroughly assessing adrenal gland physiology and of course, blood sugar.

Regarding cortisol's effect on thyroid hormones, Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, (8th edition), states: "Serum TSH, TBG (thyroid-binding protein), T4 and T3 concentrations are slightly decreased, albeit usually within the respective ranges of normal; serum free T4 values are normal."11

As discussed in our chapter on the liver, impaired detoxification can lead to abnormal thyroid function. Again, the adrenals come into play because elevated cortisol inhibits proper liver detoxification. It is sometimes necessary to support liver detoxification pathways while treating the adrenal glands and thyroid to optimize results and metabolize toxins, excess hormones and thyroid-disrupting chemicals. Signs of impaired liver detoxification include nausea, constipation, bloating, lack of response to treatment, acne, acne during menstrual cycle, medication sensitivity, and pale skin upon pressure.

There is also a powerful Adrenal-Gut connection as well. Elevated cortisol levels slowly eat away at the immune system that lines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Cortisol also increases inflammation in the GI tract and prevents the cells that line the GI tract from regenerating which increases the risk of ulcers. This leads to increased infections from parasites, yeast, mold, fungi, viruses, and bacteria which further stresses the adrenal glands creating a vicious cycle. Leaky gut is another consequence of chronically elevated cortisol levels which is a condition in which gaps open in the intestinal barrier allowing undigested proteins and toxins to enter the bloodstream uninhibited. This puts a major stress on the body's immune system and can lead to immune dysfunction, adrenal stress, chronic fatigue and thyroid hormone imbalance.

Adrenals that are functioning at a low level tend to exhibit various symptoms and patterns. Adrenal-fatigued people usually have to run on caffeine and sugar throughout the day to keep going. They are dragging out of bed and say, "I need my coffee before I can do anything." This is a sad state because it indicates an extremely unhealthy individual who requires a legal drug just to function. These individuals crave sweets and crash many times throughout the day, especially in the afternoon, and need a "pick me up" such as another cup of coffee or something sweet. This further drives blood sugar and hormone imbalances leading to weight gain, insomnia, fatigue and an underactive thyroid gland. In addition, these people can usually fall asleep without problems but will wake up during the night. This happens because there is inadequate cortisol production to stabilize blood sugar so the adrenals release adrenaline instead which raises blood sugar but is also too stimulatory resulting in waking up and insomnia.

People with adrenal hyperfunctioning usually cannot fall asleep because there is too much cortisol production which has an excitatory effect on the nervous system. There are many possible causes of elevated cortisol that lead to too much cortisol production and eventually adrenal fatigue. The following cause adrenal stress:


  1. Anemia - red blood cells cannot deliver oxygen to body tissues

  2. Blood sugar imbalances

  3. Low cholesterol - statin medications such as Lipitor, Crestor, Zocor, etc.

  4. Infections

  5. Gums

  6. Urinary tract

  7. Gastrointestinal

  8. Mold, yeast or fungus

  9. Lyme Disease/Tick-Borne Infections

  10. Chronic virus

  11. Dehydration - especially in athletes or those who fly frequently (it is important to drink half of bodyweight in ounces of water every day)

  12. Poor dietary habits (skipping meals, high intake of simple carbohydrates, etc.)

  13. Eating foods you are sensitive/allergic to

  14. Leaky gut

  15. Liver detoxification issues

  16. Essential fatty acid deficiencies

  17. Not enough sleep

  18. Overexercise

  19. Emotional stressors (usually severe)

  20. Heavy metals

  21. Autoimmune adrenals

  22. Chronic use of SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Prozac, etc.)

  23. Chronic pain

  24. Environmental toxin exposures - damages mitochondria

  25. Surgical menopause

  26. Chronic tissue injury or inflammation (autoimmune condition)

It takes a great deal of time and effort to do the proper detective work to find out why someone is ill. The supplements covered here are meant to complement diet and lifestyle changes. In order for a treatment plan to be successful, it is very important that the following guidelines are adhered to without deviation.

Adrenal stimulants will disrupt your treatment plan and consist of the following:

Inadequate sleep
Eating sugar/simple carbohydrates
Caffeine and decaffeinated beverages
Nicotine
Alcohol
Food allergies
Trans fats (hydrogenated or partially-hydrogenated oils)
Artificial sweeteners
Excess exercise

As long as blood sugar levels are out of balance, it will be extremely difficult to restore proper adrenal function. Practice the following guidelines to ensure stable blood sugar levels:


  1. Always eat breakfast that includes more protein than carbohydrates

  2. Eat every two to three hours

  3. Snack on protein and fat such as nuts, eggs and seeds

  4. Do not drink juice - this includes ALL juices which are nothing more than plant sugar

  5. Consume protein at every meal

Blood sugar imbalances and a condition known as insulin resistance are major factors in optimizing thyroid and adrenal health. Insulin resistance basically means that insulin receptors are no longer able to respond to insulin. Insulin binds to receptors and allows blood sugar to enter cells. With insulin resistance, insulin's effects are negated leaving excess blood sugar. The following symptoms can indicate insulin resistance:

Fatigue
Sugar cravings
Abdominal obesity
High blood pressure
Inability to lose weight
Always feeling hungry
Fatigue after meals
Aches and pains all over
High cholesterol, glucose, and triglycerides
Low HDL ("good" cholesterol)

Remember that impaired liver detoxification can significantly affect optimal thyroid hormone function. Elevated insulin levels will reduce glutathione levels inhibiting the liver's ability to detoxify. This will affect the conversion of inactive T4 into active T3, increase thyroid-disrupting chemicals and may lead to excess estrogen levels which inhibit thyroid hormone function.

Thyroid hormone's main function is to regulate metabolism through the burning of sugar, fat and protein. Insulin resistance prevents adequate sugar transport into the cell decreasing the available fuel for energy production. This puts an increased strain on the thyroid to make more hormone and can eventually lead to hypothyroidism.

We have already discussed the importance of adrenal gland function and its relationship to optimal thyroid health. The following supplements will help to correct adrenal gland dysfunction. It's very important to have the adrenal hormones cortisol and DHEA tested to ensure precise treatment. Adaptogens are compounds that help to normalize the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. They will help adrenals that are in a state of fatigue, high stress or a combination of both. The feedback loop of the HPA axis is key in balancing adrenal hormones, and adaptogens are vital in healing this process.

Supplements That Help Correct Adrenal Gland Dysfunction

Magnolia & Phellodendron
Magnolia is a tree native to the rain forests of China. Its bark has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes including the regulation of stress and anxiety. Phellodendron grows in northeastern China and Japan. Together, these extracts restore cortisol and DHEA production in the adrenal gland. They bind to stress hormone receptors promoting relaxation and feelings of well-being.

Perilla oil & MCTs
These essential oils have natural stress-reducing effects. Perilla oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids which stimulate repair and are anti-inflammatory. MCTs reduce cell acids and help to produce energy in the cell's mitochondria. MCTs are easy to assimilate and metabolize which is extremely important for those with delicate stomachs and impaired absorption.

Ashwagandha
Ashwagandha is an adaptogen that is similar to panax ginseng. It has the ability to normalize adrenal stress syndromes. Stress responses can have many adverse affects on health and this herb will reduce these effects.

Eleutherococcus
Eleutherococcus senticosus is an adaptogen that supports the HPA axis under times of stress as well as enhance athletic performance. Eleutherococcus will enhance physical work capacity as well as brain function when under stress.

Panax Ginseng
Panax ginseng is also known as Korean ginseng and is an adaptogen. Panax ginseng optimizes the functioning of the HPA axis. It has been shown to enhance physical performance, stamina and energy production. Panax ginseng will shift metabolism into a fat-burning state as opposed to a sugar-burning state due to an increase in oxygen availability for muscles.

Rhodiola
Rhodiola is popular in traditional Eastern European and Asian medical systems. Rhodiola is an adaptogen that has been shown to enhance immune function and brain function. It also has antidepressant properties, protects the heart and protects against cancer. Rhodiola will prevent adrenaline roller coasters due to high stress.

Holy Basil
Holy basil is an adaptogen that reduces cortisol production from stress, supports blood sugar, has antihistamine properties, optimizes the functioning of the HPA axis, improves the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier, improves immune function, and enhances athletic performance.

Pantethine
Pantethine is required for adrenal hormone production. However, it will not over-stimulate cortisol production under times of stress but has the opposite effect.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabara)
Licorice contains compounds that increase the half-life of cortisol which removes stress on the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol. It also has been shown to boost the immune system, reduce inflammation and also reduce/minimize allergic responses. Licorice is antibacterial and antiviral. Due to estrogen's negative effect on thyroid function, licorice is of great benefit because it helps normalize estrogen metabolism.

Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone is the "mother of all hormones" and is made from cholesterol in the adrenal gland. Pregnenolone converts into cortisol, DHEA, testosterone, estrogen and progesterone. Pregnenolone is a powerful antioxidant and has been shown to boost mood, improve memory and optimize brain function.

DHEA
DHEA is made by the adrenal glands and will convert into estrogen and testosterone. In men, it will mainly convert into estrogen and in women, DHEA will mainly convert into testosterone. DHEA has its own effects including resensitizing insulin receptors, boosting the immune system, preventing bone loss, enhancing memory and lowering cholesterol. When under stress, the body will make cortisol at the expense of DHEA.

Phosphatidylserine
Phosphatidylserine's greatest benefit is its ability to lower cortisol levels by optimizing the brain's relationship with the adrenal glands. After only ten days of high doses of PS, research has shown that excessive cortisol levels can be decreased in healthy men. PS has also been shown to enhance brain function and memory, decrease anxiety and depression, improve mood, and enhance metabolism. It is also an antioxidant. It is very difficult for the body to make PS as it requires many nutrients for production. Supplementation is vital for optimizing adrenal function so cortisol cannot have its negative effects on the body and the thyroid.

Supplements that Balance Blood Sugar

Blood sugar imbalances will greatly influence the ability of your thyroid to function optimally. The following supplements are vital in balancing blood sugar.

Huckleberry/Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)
The extract from the leaves of this plant has been shown to lower blood sugar levels and has been used traditionally to treat diabetes.

Galega Officinalis (French lilac)
This plant has been utilized since the Middle Ages in the treatment of diabetes. French lilac lowers blood sugar by decreasing insulin resistance. Prescription medications for blood sugar control such as Metformin are derived from the active ingredients in French lilac.

Gymnema Sylvestre
Gymnema sylvestre has been shown to regenerate the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. This herb will enhance the effects of insulin, reduce fasting blood sugar, decrease the need for insulin and help with insulin resistance. It will not cause a state of hypoglycemia, however.

Chromium
Chromium stabilizes blood sugar and insulin levels after meals. It will also ensure optimal delivery of blood sugar into your cells. Deficiencies in this nutrient can lead to insulin resistance, high cholesterol and abnormalities in sugar's ability to bind to red blood cells.

Zinc
Zinc's role in blood sugar management includes optimizing insulin metabolism, protecting insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas and improving insulin sensitivity which ensures optimal uptake of sugar into your cells.

Vanadium
Vanadium is very important for insulin resistance by improving transport of sugar into your cells due to its insulin-like effects on cell receptors.

Alpha lipoic acid (ALA)
ALA is another important nutrient for insulin resistance and is also a strong antioxidant. ALA increases energy production by your cells, optimizes sugar metabolism and lowers lactic acid levels.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E should not be taken in its alpha tocopherol form. Mixed tocopherols including gamma and delta tocopherol are the preferred form of delivery. Vitamin E improves insulin sensitivity, lowers blood fats, is a powerful antioxidant and lowers the so-called "bad" LDL cholesterol.

Biotin
Biotin is important in supporting the liver's utilization of sugar. This nutrient will enhance insulin's effects as well as lower blood sugar levels after meals.

Magnesium
Entire books have been written on the king of minerals. Magnesium is involved in approximately 350 reactions in the body and deficiencies in our society are rampant. Magnesium deficiency will lead to insulin resistance and abnormal sugar metabolism. Magnesium appears to enhance insulin secretion by the pancreas.

L-carnitine
L-carnitine is a di-peptide compound that shuttles fatty acids in the cell to be burned as energy. Carnitine has similar effects on blood sugar by supporting sugar transport into cells.

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